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Promising 15 Branches of Pharmacology in Clinical Research

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Pharmacology is one of the most important branches of medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, and biology concerned with drug and medication actions. In terms of branches of pharmacology, the drug may be defined as a natural, artificial, or endogenous molecule that exerts a physiological or biochemical effect on tissues, the cell, organ or organism. 

Clinical pharmacology is the scientific study of drug safety related to humans in all aspects. Pharmacology is a multidisciplinary science that encompasses professionals with a range of scientific skills that include medicine, pharmacology in clinical research, pharmacy, nursing and biomedical science. However, the term ‘clinical pharmacologist’ is specifically used in the professional sense of being a specialist in pharmacology. 

Pharmacology specialists usually undertake multiple postgraduate training programs in many aspects of the relationships between drugs and humans involving healthcare, research and teaching. The primary goal of a pharmacology professional is to directly or indirectly improve patient care by developing better medicines while promoting the safe and effective use of drugs simultaneously. 

The Importance of Pharmacology

Pharmacology is all about the study of drugs and the drug effects on living organisms. It is one of the most interdisciplinary fields that is confined to chemistry, medicine and physiology.

Here, you will explore the importance of pharmacology in clinical research for multiple reasons: 

  1. Pharmacology helps you understand how drugs work and how you can use them to treat diseases. 
  2. As a pharmacology specialist, you can use it to develop new drugs and improve existing drugs’ efficiency and safety. 
  3. A pharmacology specialist diagnoses and manages poisoning drugs.
  4. Pharmacology helps you to educate and make the public understand the effectiveness and safety of drugs. 

How Pharmacology is Improving Patient Care?

New Drug Development

Pharmacology is specifically essential for the development of new drugs. Scientists use pharmacology in clinical research to study the effects of different compounds based on living organisms that have the potential to be used as drugs. 

Existing Drug Improvements

The use of pharmacology improves the safety and efficacy of existing drugs as scientists use pharmacology to study drug metabolism and identify ways to reduce its side effects.

Diagnosis & Management of Drug Poisoning

The use of pharmacology is to diagnose and manage the level of drug poisoning as the doctors can use pharmacology to identify the drug ingested and to determine appropriate treatments.

Safe & Effective Use of Drugs Education

The use of pharmacology is to educate the public about the safe and effective use of drugs as pharmacists use pharmacology in clinical research to counsel patients about their medications and specifically to help people understand the risks and benefits of taking drugs. 

List of 15 Branches of Pharmacology in Clinical Research

By knowing each pharmacology branch, you will get to understand all how branches of pharmacology work in different aspects. These are the branches:  


Pharmacokinetics is the first branch of pharmacology which is typically the study of how drugs move through the body including how they are absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted. Pharmacokinetics is important to understand how drugs work and are dosed safely and effectively. 


Pharmacodynamics is the study of drug interaction with the body that includes their work at the molecular levels and how they affect the cells of a body, tissues, and organs. Pharmacodynamics is important to understand how drugs produce their effects and how pharmacology is used to treat diseases. 


Therapeutics is the third branch of pharmacology that specifically deals with the drugs used to treat diseases including the selection, dosage, and administration of drugs. Therapeutics is one of the most important branches of pharmacology which is important for developing new treatments for diseases and for ensuring that drugs for safe and effective. 


Chemotherapy is the fourth branch of pharmacovigilance which is specifically used as a drug to treat cancer. The drugs of chemotherapy work by killing cancer cells or preventing the cells from growing. Chemotherapy is the fourth branch of pharmacology that is important for the treatment of cancer. There is one disadvantage of Chemotherapy is it may also have some kind of serious side effects. 


Toxicology is the study of the harmful effects of drugs on the body. It includes the acute and chronic effects of drugs and the mechanism of drug toxicity. Toxicology is important specifically to understand the risk of drugs and to develop methods of preventing drug poisoning. 

Clinical Pharmacology

Clinical pharmacology is basically the study of drug usage in humans that includes the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and exertion of drugs in humans, the drug’s effect on human cells, tissues, and organs, and the safety and efficacy of humans. Clinical pharmacology is important enough to ensure that drugs are effective and safe when humans use them.


Pharmacognosy is the study of the identification, isolation, and extraction of active compounds from plants and other natural sources. Pharmacognosy is an important branch of pharmacology in clinical research specifically to develop new drugs from natural sources and to understand the mechanism of action of these drugs. 


Pharmacogenomics is the study typically based on how genes influence the body’s response to drugs including how the genes affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs; how genes affect the effects of drugs on cells, tissues, and organs; and how genes affect the risk of drug side effects. Pharmacogenomics is the most important branch of pharmacology that develops personalized medicine drug treatment tailored to the individual patient’s genetic makeup.


Pharmacoeconomics is the study of the cost-effectiveness of drugs including the costs of drug development, production, and marketing; the benefits of drug treatment; and the impact of drug use on the healthcare system. Pharmacoeconomics is important for making decisions about the use of drugs in the healthcare system.


Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of drug-related effects in populations that include the study of drug safety, drug efficacy, and drug utilization. Pharmacoepidemiology is important for understanding the benefits and risks of drug use in the population.

Comparative pharmacology

Comparative pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on different species the study of drugs’ effect on different species includes the study of how drugs are absorbed, distributed, exerted, and metabolized in different species. The study of comparative pharmacology in clinical research is typically based on how the drug affects cells, tissues, and organs in different species and how drugs produce their effects in different species. Comparative pharmacology is important for understanding how drugs work and for developing new drugs that are safe and effective in humans. 

Animal pharmacology

Animal pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on animals. The study is all about the absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion in animals, how drugs affect tissues, cells and organs in animals, and how drugs produce their effect in animals. Animal Pharmacology in clinical research is the utmost important branch of pharmacology to understand how drugs work and to develop new drugs that are safe and effective in humans. 


Posology is the study of dosage, route of administration, and frequency of drugs which is important to ensure that drugs are dose safe and effective.

Pharmaceutical Technology

Pharmaceutical technology is the study of the manufacturing, formulation, and quality control of drugs and it is important because the study ensures that drugs are safe and effective. 

Pharmaceutical care

Pharmaceutical care is the provision of pharmaceutical services to patients that includes the assessment of patients’ drug needs, the selection, dosage, and administration of drugs; and monitoring of patient’s response to drugs specifically. Pharmaceutical care is the utmost important part or branch of pharmacology that ensures patients receive safe and effective drug therapy. 


In conclusion, there are 15 branches of pharmacology, in which each with its own focus. These branches are pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, therapeutics, chemotherapy, toxicology, clinical pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacoepidemiology, comparative pharmacology, animal pharmacology, posology, pharmaceutical technology, and pharmaceutical care. 

When you look into the future of pharmacology, its future is bright. With the advancement in technology and understanding of the human body, pharmacology has the potential to further improve human health in multiple ways. 

In particular, pharmacology is expected to play a crucial role in the development of personalized medicine, the treatment of chronic diseases, the prevention of disease, and regenerative medicine. With the continued advancements in the field of pharmacology in clinical research, it is poised to make a major impact on human health in the years to come.

CliniLaunch Research Institute is an education and training institute for the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry bridging the gap between students, working professionals, and industry standards. Learn pharmacology under the guidance of industry experts, visit the website and register at

2 Responses

    1. Thanks Harvey, I’m glad you enjoyed the article! I’m working on some new content now, so stay tuned for more. In the meantime, is there anything specific you’d like to see covered in the future?

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